FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR PDF

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seostinicousma.cf Full file at seostinicousma.cf MODULE ONE FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR (Four hours) CHAPTER ONE- Understanding Organizational Behaviour (one hour). Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Neal P. Mero and others published The Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior.


Fundamentals Of Organizational Behaviour Pdf

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Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior: An Applied Perspective, Second Edition examines the behavior of people in organizations. Topics covered range . Organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. 9 Foundations of Group Behavior 15 Foundations of Organization Structure Fundamentals of organizational behaviour / Nancy Langton,. Stephen P. Robbins , Timothy A. Judge.—5th Canadian ed. Includes index. ISBN

Value premises are variable beliefs we hold and are therefore under our control. The rules by which we make our decisions about right and wrong, should and should not, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another. VISION It represents a challenging portrait of the organization and its members can be — a possible and desirable future.

Leaders need to create exciting projections about organization should go and what major changes lie ahead. Once the vision is established, persistent and enthusiastic communication is required to sell it to through out the ranks of employees so they will embrace it with commitment. Identifies the business it is in, the market niches it tries to serve, the types of customer it is likely to have, and the reason for its existence.

Consists of a brief listing of the competitive advantages or strengths that the organization believes in. It is more descriptive and less future-oriented than vision. Need to be converted to goal to become operational and useful. GOALS Goals are relatively concrete formulation of achievements the organization is aiming for within set periods of time, such as one to five years. Goal setting is complex process for top management's goals need to be merged with those of employees, who bring their psychological, social an economic needs with them to an organization A.

DepEd Vision DepEd Mission Students learn in a child-friendly, gender-sensitive, safe, and motivating environment. All societies are based solely on an agreement of men not to harm each other— a mutual advantage. He was against the use of force of education. Teachers facilitate learning and constantly nurture every learner. Administrators and staff, as stewards of the Institution, ensure an enabling and supportive environment for effective learning to happen.

Such an existence in the company of a few like-minded friends will provide the reassurance and good fellowship necessary for peace of mind, ataraxia. Targets and Reforms Reforms effectively implemented Reforms institutionalized Backlog on education inputs addressed Ten Point Education Agenda accomplished DepEd budget appropriately and efficiently utilized Technology DepEd dashboard made accessible DepEd data and other information are consistent All schools connected Online educational system going global Online enrolment Learning Materials digitized Learner-centered and Inclusive Education Children at the center of basic education Education services responsive to student and family choice Students are offered options on the delivery mode Safer DepEd child protection, disaster-resilient schools, etc.

Teachers prepared for K to 12 Curriculum for multigrade schools available Models of OB Lesson 3: Managing Communications A. Communication The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding. The Communication Process Figure Ideation It is the conception of an idea or thought by a person, group or an organization.

Encoding when an idea or thought is translated into symbols, verbal or non-verbal, that are understood by others. Transmission This takes place when the idea or thought which has been places into some transmittable language is passed through one or more available channels five senses and through some medium.

Decoding simply interpretation of the message. Understanding mean that the receiver grasps the essentials of the message. Noise interference in the communication process. Feedback returned message from the receiver to the sender. Communication Networks Type of communication network depends on: Commun ication Networks in Groups and Teams Figure Chain Network Members communicate only with the people next to them in the sequence.

Wheel and chain networks provide little interaction. Circle Network Members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise, experience, and location.

All-Channel Network Networks found in teams with high levels of communications between each member and all others. It is not controlled by the management. It is largely used to serve the self — interest of the people within it.

Formal and Informal Communication Networks in an Organization Emotions - How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of a communication influences how he or she interprets it. Men tend to use talk to emphasize status, whereas women tend to use it to create connections. What is listening?

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You must choose to participate in the process of listening. Listening is learned first and used most, but taught least. How Important is listening? Listening builds stronger relationships …creates a desire to cooperate among people because they feel accepted and acknowledged. If the whole person can be developed , then benefits will extend beyond the firm into the larger society in which each employee lives. In case of needs, people are motivated not by what others think they ought to have but by what they themselves want.

Motivation of employees is essential to the operation of organizations and the biggest challenge faced by managers. Consequently, organizations need to provide opportunities to the employees for meaningful involvement.

Value of the Person- People want to be treated with care, dignity and respect and increasingly they are demanding such treatment from their employers. They want to be valued for their skills and abilities and to be provided with opportunities to develop themselves.

The Nature of Organizations The three key concepts related to the nature of organizations are: Social systems- Sociology tells that organizations are social systems.

Just have people have psychological needs they also have social roles and status. Their behavior is influenced by their group as well as their by their individual drives.

Two types of social systems exist side by side in the organization- the formal official social system and the informal social system- each influencing and getting influenced by the other.

Mutual Interest-There is a mutuality of interest between the organization and its employees. Organization needs employees to reach its objectives and people need organizations to help them reach individual objectives.

Mutual interest provides a superordinate goal — one that can be attained only through the integrated efforts of individuals and their employees. Ethics- Ethics is the use of moral principles and values to affect the behavior of individuals and organizations with regard to choices between what is right and wrong. In order to ensure a higher standard of ethical performance by managers and employees companies have established codes of ethics, publicized statements of ethical values and set up internal procedures to handle misconduct.

Since Organizational behavior involves people, ethical philosophy is involved in one way or another in ea h a tio the take. Basic approaches of Organizational behaviour The four basic approaches of OB are: Human Resources supportive approach- Employee growth and development toward higher levels of competency, creativity and fulfillment are encouraged and supported because people are the central resource in any organization and society.

Contingency approach-Different managerial behaviours are required by different environments for effectiveness. Results-oriented approach-Outcomes of organizational behavior programs are assessed in terms of their efficiency. Systems approach- All parts of an organization interact in a complex relationship.

The Individual in the Organization Individual performance forms the basis of organizational performance. Individual characteristics—e.

Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behavior

Individual motivation—interacts with ability to work to determine individual performance. Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior Interpersonal influence and group behavior affect organizational performance in the following way: Group Behavior—the dynamics of formal groups created by managerial decisions and informal groups developing around members' common interests and friendship have an impact on the functioning of the organization b.

Power and Politics—the dynamics and effects of power, authority and politics in the organization. Organizational Processes, Structure and Design A formal pattern of activities and interrelationship among the various subunits of the organization. It includes: Organizational Structure—the components of the organization and how these components fit together. Job Design—the processes managers use to specify the contents, methods, and relationships of jobs and specific task assignments. Organizational Processes—four behavioral processes that contribute to effective organizational performance are: Leadership—important for obtaining individual, group and organizational performance.

Defined by some in terms of specific traits and behaviors; the combination of those behaviors; or dependent upon the specific situation in which the leading is occurring. Communication Process—links the organization to its environment and links parts within the organization to each other. Decision-Making Process—the dynamics, variety and techniques of both individual and group decision-making. Organizational Change and Development Processes—planned attempts to implement change that will improve overall individual, group, and organizational performance.

It involves the study of Organizational structure and Design and Managing change and Innovation. Basic OB Model Model is an abstraction of reality and a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.

Three theoretical frameworks- the cognitive, behavioristic and social learning frameworks form the basis of an organizational behavior model. The cognitive approach is based on the expectancy, demand and incentive concepts.

Edward Tolman has made significant contributions to this approach. Behavioristic framework focuses on observable behaviors. Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson were the pioneers of the behavioristic theory. They explained human behavior on the basis of the connection between stimulus and response. The social learning approach incorporates the concepts and principles of both the cognitive and behavioristic frameworks. In this approach, behavior is explained as a continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral and environmental determinants.

The organization behavior model S, O, B, C has incorporated the best aspects from the three frameworks of human behavior. In this model, the letters S, O, B, C represent situation, organism, behavior and consequences, respectively. In the OB Model there are some dependent variables like productivity, absenteeism, turnover, job satisfaction, deviant workplace behaviour, organizational citizenship behaviour etc -the reasons of which people try to understand.

The cause of these outcomes like with some variables at individual, group and individual level-these variables are called independent variables. In the context of the organizational environment the independent variables at different levels interact between and amongst each other giving rise to a complex dynamics which leads to the various outcome variables as mentioned above.

For this reason there are few absolutes in OB as everything is contingent on situation and what holds good for one situation may not hold good for another situation. The four goals of Organizational behavior are: Importance of Organizational behaviour for the managers Organizational behavior provides a useful set of tools at five levels of analysis.

Questions What is the meaning of Organizational behaviour? Explain the contributions made by various behavioural science discipline to OB. Describe the fundamental concepts connected with Organizational behaviour.

What are the four basic approaches of Organizational behaviour? Describe the framework of the study of Organizational behaviour with reference to the basic OB model. Describe the goals of organizational behaviour. Justify with examples the importance of the knowledge of Organizational behaviour for the managers. Developing competencies for facing the challenges. It is e i po ta t fo the a age s to recognize the nature, significance and effectiveness of their own models as well as the models of others around them.

People are not inherently lazy. They have become that way as a result of experience People will exercise self direction and self control in the service of the objectives to which they are committed People have potential.

Under proper condition they learn to accept and seek responsibility. They have imagination, ingenuity and creativity that can be applied to work With these assumptions the managerial role is to develop the potential in employees and help them release that potential toward common objectives. Five Models of Organizational Behaviour- The five models of Organizational Behaviour — Autocratic, Custodial, Supportive, Collegial and System, in the order mentioned , represent the historical evolution in management practice.

Organizations differ amongst themselves in the model practiced by it. The practices may vary within the departments or branches of one organization. The models of organizational behaviour Source: Effectiveness in Organizations Levi Strauss, an effective company practices the following value principles: Differing points of ie s a e sought a d ot supp essed. Ethical Practices—management epitomizes the stated standards of ethical behavior.

Empowerment—managers increase the authority and responsibility of those closest to the products and the customers. Since then effectiveness research has looked at two kinds of attributes: Variables that predict effectiveness.

Variables that indicate effectiveness. Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matteson in their book Organizational behavior and management -7th edition TMH have highlighted two approaches of studying effectiveness-the goal approach and the systems theory approach.

The Goal Approach It is the oldest and most widely used approach to defining and measuring effectiveness. It assumes that organizations exist to accomplish goals which reflects purpose, rationality, and achievement. Several management practices e. However, the shortcomings of the goal approach are: Goal achievement for organizations with intangible outputs e.

Goal conflict frequently occurs as organizations strive to achieve many goals e. Organizational members rarely achieve consensus on a set of goals to pursue. Goal achievement does not guarantee organizational effectiveness. Despite shortcomings, the goal approach exerts a powerful influence on OB theory and management.

The Systems Theory Approach It defines effectiveness in the broader context of the internal and external environment. It emphasizes that managers must deal with the internal and external aspects of organizational behavior and views the organization as one of many interdependent elements. The organization depends on the external environment for two kinds of inputs, which it transforms into outputs, and then releases in the hope that the external environment will accept them. These two inputs are: Human Inputs—employees and natural resources b.

Non-human inputs e. An important aspect of the systems theory is the feedback. Feedback, or information that reflects the outcomes of an act or series of acts, enables the organization to adjust to environmental demands. Feedback would include market research, financial reports, customer complaints, etc. Systems theory emphasizes two important considerations: An organization's ability to adapt to environmental demands; b.

The idea of the "learning organization," which evolves from the systems theory, suggests that organizations learn, adapt, and change by acquiring knowledge, distributing information, and interpreting information. Two types of learning are: Generative learning— learning how to learn. Facilitative learning—learning to learn through teaching. Time dimension of Organizational effectiveness Systems theory is used to integrate organizational effectiveness and time.

In Systems theory the organization is considered as one element of a larger system of number of elements, the environment, that act interdependently.

The organization takes resources inputs from the external environment, processes these resources and returns them in changed form output. The criteria of effectiveness are also time based like Short run results of actions concluded in a year or less , Intermediate run when effectives of individual, group or organization is considered for a longer period, perhaps five years and Long run for this the time frame is indefinite future.

Four Short run effectiveness criteria are quality, productivity, efficiency and satisfaction. Three intermediate criteria are quality, adaptiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. The two long run criteria are quality and survival. Criteria of Effectiveness Effectiveness criteria must reflect the stage of the organization's life-cycle which includes stages of growth, maturation and decline and short, intermediate, and long-term perspectives. Organizational Change and Development Processes—planned attempts to implement change that will improve overall individual, group, and organizational performance.

It involves the study of Organizational structure and Design and Managing change and Innovation. Basic OB Model Model is an abstraction of reality and a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon. Three theoretical frameworks- the cognitive, behavioristic and social learning frameworks form the basis of an organizational behavior model.

The cognitive approach is based on the expectancy, demand and incentive concepts. Edward Tolman has made significant contributions to this approach. Behavioristic framework focuses on observable behaviors. Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson were the pioneers of the behavioristic theory. They explained human behavior on the basis of the connection between stimulus and response.

The social learning approach incorporates the concepts and principles of both the cognitive and behavioristic frameworks. In this approach, behavior is explained as a continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral and environmental determinants.

The organization behavior model S, O, B, C has incorporated the best aspects from the three frameworks of human behavior. In this model, the letters S, O, B, C represent situation, organism, behavior and consequences, respectively.

In the OB Model there are some dependent variables like productivity, absenteeism, turnover, job satisfaction, deviant workplace behaviour, organizational citizenship behaviour etc -the reasons of which people try to understand. The cause of these outcomes like with some variables at individual, group and individual level-these variables are called independent variables.

In the context of the organizational environment the independent variables at different levels interact between and amongst each other giving rise to a complex dynamics which leads to the various outcome variables as mentioned above. For this reason there are few absolutes in OB as everything is contingent on situation and what holds good for one situation may not hold good for another situation.

The four goals of Organizational behavior are: To describe systematically how people behave under variety of conditions To understand why people behave as they do Predicting future employee behavior Control at least partially and develop some human activity at work.

Importance of Organizational behaviour for the managers Organizational behavior provides a useful set of tools at five levels of analysis.

Questions What is the meaning of Organizational behaviour? Explain the contributions made by various behavioural science discipline to OB. Describe the fundamental concepts connected with Organizational behaviour. What are the four basic approaches of Organizational behaviour? Describe the framework of the study of Organizational behaviour with reference to the basic OB model.

Describe the goals of organizational behaviour. Justify with examples the importance of the knowledge of Organizational behaviour for the managers. Developing competencies for facing the challenges. It is e i po ta t fo the a age s to recognize the nature, significance and effectiveness of their own models as well as the models of others around them. People are not inherently lazy. They have become that way as a result of experience People will exercise self direction and self control in the service of the objectives to which they are committed People have potential.

Under proper condition they learn to accept and seek responsibility. They have imagination, ingenuity and creativity that can be applied to work With these assumptions the managerial role is to develop the potential in employees and help them release that potential toward common objectives. Five Models of Organizational Behaviour- The five models of Organizational Behaviour — Autocratic, Custodial, Supportive, Collegial and System, in the order mentioned , represent the historical evolution in management practice.

Organizations differ amongst themselves in the model practiced by it. The practices may vary within the departments or branches of one organization. Effectiveness in Organizations Levi Strauss, an effective company practices the following value principles: a. Differing points of ie s a e sought a d ot supp essed. Ethical Practices—management epitomizes the stated standards of ethical behavior.

Empowerment—managers increase the authority and responsibility of those closest to the products and the customers. Since then effectiveness research has looked at two kinds of attributes: a. Variables that predict effectiveness. Variables that indicate effectiveness. Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matteson in their book Organizational behavior and management -7th edition TMH have highlighted two approaches of studying effectiveness-the goal approach and the systems theory approach.

The Goal Approach It is the oldest and most widely used approach to defining and measuring effectiveness. It assumes that organizations exist to accomplish goals which reflects purpose, rationality, and achievement. Several management practices e. However, the shortcomings of the goal approach are: a.

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Goal achievement for organizations with intangible outputs e. Goal conflict frequently occurs as organizations strive to achieve many goals e.

Organizational members rarely achieve consensus on a set of goals to pursue. Goal achievement does not guarantee organizational effectiveness. Despite shortcomings, the goal approach exerts a powerful influence on OB theory and management. The Systems Theory Approach It defines effectiveness in the broader context of the internal and external environment.

It emphasizes that managers must deal with the internal and external aspects of organizational behavior and views the organization as one of many interdependent elements. The organization depends on the external environment for two kinds of inputs, which it transforms into outputs, and then releases in the hope that the external environment will accept them.

These two inputs are: a. Human Inputs—employees and natural resources b. Non-human inputs e. An important aspect of the systems theory is the feedback. Feedback, or information that reflects the outcomes of an act or series of acts, enables the organization to adjust to environmental demands. Feedback would include market research, financial reports, customer complaints, etc.

Systems theory emphasizes two important considerations: a. An organization's ability to adapt to environmental demands; b. The idea of the "learning organization," which evolves from the systems theory, suggests that organizations learn, adapt, and change by acquiring knowledge, distributing information, and interpreting information.

Essentials of Organizational Behavior (7th Edition)

Two types of learning are: a. Generative learning— learning how to learn. Facilitative learning—learning to learn through teaching. Time dimension of Organizational effectiveness Systems theory is used to integrate organizational effectiveness and time. In Systems theory the organization is considered as one element of a larger system of number of elements, the environment, that act interdependently.

The organization takes resources inputs from the external environment, processes these resources and returns them in changed form output.

According to Systems theory, effectiveness criteria must reflect the entire input-process-output cycle, not simply output and must also reflect the interrelationships between the organization and its outside environment.

The criteria of effectiveness are also time based like Short run results of actions concluded in a year or less , Intermediate run when effectives of individual, group or organization is considered for a longer period, perhaps five years and Long run for this the time frame is indefinite future. Four Short run effectiveness criteria are quality, productivity, efficiency and satisfaction.

Three intermediate criteria are quality, adaptiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. The two long run criteria are quality and survival. Criteria of Effectiveness Effectiveness criteria must reflect the stage of the organization's life-cycle which includes stages of growth, maturation and decline and short, intermediate, and long-term perspectives.

Quality—overarching criteria of effectiveness that involves meeting customers' needs and expectations.

Productivity—reflects the relationship between inputs and outputs. It excludes consideration of efficiency. Measures of productivity include profit, sales, market share, patients released, clients served. Efficiency— it is the ratio of outputs to inputs. Efficiency focuses on the entire input-process-output cycle, emphasizing input and process.

Satisfaction—the extent to which the organization meets employee needs. It recognizes the organization as a social system that must benefit its participants. Measures of satisfaction include turnover, absenteeism, and employee attitudes. Adaptiveness—degree to which the organization can and does respond to internal and external changes. It relates to management's ability to sense environmental changes and changes within the organization.

There are no specific, concrete measures of adaptiveness, but certain programs e. Development—ability of the organization to increase its capacity to deal with environmental demands. It means that an organization must invest in itself to increase its chances of survival in the long run. Training programs and organizational development programs represent the organization's investment in survival.

Sound OB should recognize a social system in which many types of human needs are served in many ways. The Law of diminishing returns- More of a good thing is not necessarily good. For any situation there is an optimum amount of desirable practice. Organizational effectiveness is achieved not by maximizing human variable but by combining all system variables together in a balanced way.

Unethical Manipulation of people-Knowledge and techniques can be used to manipulate people unethically. Key forces affecting organizations and continuing challenges A complex set of four forces affects the nature of organizations today.

They are: People-People are the living, thinking and feeling beings who work in the organization to achieve their objectives. People make up the internal social system of the organization. The internal social system consists of individuals and groups which are dynamic in nature, large as well as small in size, unofficial, informal and more official formal ones.

Structure- Structure defines the formal relationship and use of people in organizations. When people work together in an organization to accomplish an objective, some kind of structure of formal relationships is required so that their work can be effectively coordinated.

Technology- Technology consists of the intellectual and mechanical processes used by an organization to transform inputs into products or services that meet organizational goals.Now, well into his career, Charlie is well known for taking the initiative. Quality—overarching criteria of effectiveness that involves meeting customers' needs and expectations. Will the same motivational models be useful in these situations?

Later in the chapter we introduce the key concepts that OB deals with, lay out the four basic approaches taken in this book, and identify some factors that limit or even undermine the success of OB.

For any company competing in the global marketplace it is essential to understand the diverse cultures of the individuals involved and develop cross cultural sensitivity. The organization itself may come to be regarded as precious in itself, as a source of pride, and in some sense unique. Promotion from within.

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