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The Things of Production vs. Is Social Business the Answer? Classical Perspective A. Scientific Management B. Bureaucratic Organizations C. Administrative Principles III. Humanistic Perspective A. Early Advocates B. Human Relations Movement C. Evolution of Style D.
Behavioral Sciences Approach IV. Management Science V. Recent Historical Trends A.
Systems Thinking B. Contingency View VI. Contemporary Management Tools B. Summarize how historical forces influence the practice of management. The practice of management has changed in response to historical conditions. The three major historical forces shaping management are social, political, and economic. The scientific numbers-driven push for greater productivity and profitability and the call for more humanistic, people-oriented management have caused a dilemma..
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May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Describe the major components of the classical and humanistic management perspectives. The thrust of the classical perspective was to make organizations efficient operating machines. This perspective contains the following subfields, each with a slightly different emphasis: Scientific management emphasizes that decisions based on rules of thumb and tradition be replaced with precise procedures developed after careful study of individual situations as the solution to improve efficiency and labor productivity.
Bureaucratic organizations emphasizes management on an impersonal, rational basis through elements such as clearly defined authority and responsibility, record keeping, and separation of management and ownership. Administrative principles focus on the productivity of the total organization rather than the productivity of the individual worker.
The humanistic perspective emphasizes the importance of understanding human behaviors, needs, and attitudes in the workplace, as well as social interactions and group processes. Major components include the: Human relations movement, which recognized and directly responded to social pressures for enlightened treatment of employees, and the notion that human relations was the best approach for increasing productivity — a belief that persists today.
Human resources perspective, which maintained an interest in worker participation and considerate leadership but shifted the emphasis to consider the daily tasks that people perform, combining prescriptions for design of job tasks with theories of motivation.
Behavioral sciences approach, which develops theories of human behavior based on scientific methods and draws from sociology, psychology, anthropology, economic and other disciplines to develop theories about human behavior and interaction in an organizational setting.
Discuss the management science approach and its current use in organizations. Management science, also called the quantitative perspective, uses mathematics, statistical techniques, and computer technology to facilitate management decision making for complex problems. The Walt Disney Company uses management science to solve the problem of long lines for popular rides at its theme parks. The three subsets of management science are: Operations research, which consists of mathematical model building and other applications of quantitative techniques to managerial problems.
Operations management, which refers to the field of management that specializes in the physical production of goods and services. Information Technology IT , which is reflected in management information systems, provides relevant information to managers in a timely and cost-efficient manner.
Explain the major concepts of systems thinking and, the contingency view 5. A system is a set of interrelated parts that function as a whole to achieve a common purpose.
Subsystems are parts of a system that depend on one another for their functioning. The organization must be managed as a coordinated whole. An important element of systems thinking is to discern circles of causality. Certain contingencies, or variables, exist for helping management identify and understand situations. The contingency view tells us that what works in one setting might not work in another.
When managers learn to identify important patterns and characteristics of their organizations, they can then fit solutions to those characteristics. Important contingencies that managers must understand include the industry, technology, the environment, and international cultures. Provide examples of contemporary management tools and explain why these trends change over time. Contemporary management tools include such things as benchmarking, strategic planning, customer segmentation, mission and vision statements, customer relationship management, supply chain management, outsourcing, total quality management, Lean Six Sigma, strategic alliances, and collaborative innovation, and online communities among others.
Management trends change over time primarily as a result of changes in economic conditions, but also due to culture shifts, changes in customer needs, and the demands of the environment.
Describe the management changes brought about by a technology-driven workplace, including the role of big data analytics and supply chain management Companies are using technology to keep in touch with customers and collaborate with other organizations on an unprecedented scale.
Social media programs include company online community pages, social media sites, microblogging platforms, and company online forums. One frequent, and controversial, use of social media has been to look into the backgrounds and activities of job candidates.
The newest business technology is big data analysis, which refers to technologies, skills, and processes for searching and examining massive, complex sets of data that traditional data processing applications cannot handle to uncover hidden patterns and correlations. Supply chain management refers to managing the sequence of suppliers and downloadrs, covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to consumers.
Many organizations manage the supply chain with sophisticated electronic technology. Explain how organizations are implementing the ideas of bossless workplaces and employee engagement to facilitate a people-driven workplace. Management philosophies and styles change over time to meet new needs. This exercise helps students determine their primary management styles as either Theory X old style or Theory Y new style.
Studying management history is a way to achieve strategic thinking, see the big picture, and improve conceptual skills. The first step is to explain the social, political, and economic forces that have influenced organizations and the practice of management.
Social forces refer to those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people. What do people value? What do people need?
What are the standards of behavior among people? These forces shape the social contract, the unwritten, common rules and perceptions about relationships among people and between employees and management.
A significant social force today is the changing attitudes, ideas, and values of Generation Y employees—young, educated, technologically adept, and globally conscious. Political forces refer to the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations. One significant political force is the increased role of government in business. Political forces include basic assumptions underlying the political system such as the desirability of self-government, property rights, contract rights, and justice.
People are demanding empowerment, participation, and responsibility in all areas of their lives. On a global scale, growing anti-American sentiments in many parts of the world create challenges for United States companies and managers. Economic forces pertain to the availability, production, and distribution of resources in a society.
Companies in every industry have been affected by the recent financial crisis. Reduced consumer spending and tighter access to credit have curtailed growth and left companies scrambling to meet goals with limited resources. Another economic trend that affects managers worldwide is the growing economic power of countries such as China, India, and Brazil.
Management practices and perspectives vary in response to these social, political, and economic forces in the larger society. A dilemma—the scientific numbers-driven push for greater productivity and profitability and the call for more humanistic, people-oriented management—has continued to the present day. Social business, which refers to using social media technologies for interacting with and facilitating communication and collaboration among employees, customers, and other stakeholders, is one current answer to the historical struggle.
Social media programs include company online community pages, wikis for virtual collaboration, social media sites such as Facebook or LinkedIn, video channels such as YouTube, microblogging platforms such as Twitter, and company online forums.
Discussion Question 4: A management professor once said that for successful management, studying the present was most important, studying the past was next, and studying the future should come last.
Do you agree? Discussion Question Can a manager be effective and successful today without using social media? What do you see as the most important ways for managers to use this technology? The factory system of the s faced challenges that earlier organizations had not encountered. Problems arose in tooling plants, organizing managerial structure, training non-English speaking employees, scheduling complex manufacturing operations, and resolving strikes.
These new problems and the development of large complex, organizations demanded a new perspective on coordination and control. The classical perspective contains three subfields, each with a slightly different emphasis—scientific management, bureaucratic organizations, and administrative principles. Scientific Management Exhibit 2. Frederick W. Taylor developed scientific management, a subfield of the classical perspective, that emphasizes scientific changes in management to improve labor productivity.
However, because scientific management ignored the Taylor suggested that decisions based on rules of thumb and tradition should be replaced with precise work procedures developed after careful study of individual situations. In , Taylor used the unloading of iron from rail cars and reloading finished steel to calculate the correct movements, and tools needed to increase productivity.
Frank B. Gilbreth pioneered time and motion study, which stressed efficiency and the best way to do work. Although Gilbreth is known for work with bricklayers, his work had great impact on medical surgery by drastically reducing the time that patients spent on the operating table.
Lillian M. Gilbreth was more interested in the human aspect of work, and pioneered in the field of industrial psychology and made substantial contributions to human resource management. Scientific management that began with Taylor dramatically increased productivity across all industries, and they are still important today.
To use this approach, managers should develop standard methods for doing each job, select workers with appropriate abilities, train workers in the standard methods, support workers and eliminate interruptions, and provide wage incentives. Bureaucratic Organizations Exhibit 2. The bureaucratic organizations approach is a subfield within the classical perspective that looked at the organization as a whole.
Max Weber introduced management on an impersonal, rational basis through clearly defined authority and responsibility, formal recordkeeping, and separation of management and ownership. In a bureaucracy, managers do not depend on personality for successfully giving orders, but rather on the legal power invested in their managerial positions.
For example, UPS has been successful because of its bureaucracy of rules and regulations, a well-defined division of labor, and technical qualifications as a primary hiring criterion. Administrative Principles 1. The administrative principles approach focused on the total organization rather than the individual worker.
Henri Fayol identified 14 principles of that include the following four. Unity of Command. Each employee should have only one boss. Division of Work. Specialized employees produce more with the same effort. Unity of Direction. Similar activities should be grouped under one manager. Scalar Chain.
A chain of authority extends from the top of an organization. Fayol felt that these principles could be applied in any organizational setting. He also identified five basic functions or elements of management: Subfields within the humanistic perspective include the human relations movement, the human resources perspective, and the behavioral sciences approach.
Early Advocates 1.
Mary Parker Follett stressed the importance of people rather than engineering techniques and addressed ethics, power, and empowerment. Her concepts included facilitating rather than controlling employees, and allowing employees to act according to the situation. Chester I. Barnard contributed the concept of the informal organization, which occurs in all formal organizations and includes cliques and social groupings.
Barnard argued that organizations were not machines and that informal relationships are powerful forces that can help the organization if properly managed. Barnard also contributed the acceptance theory of authority—the notion that employees have free will and can choose whether to follow management orders. Acceptance of authority can be critical to success in important situations.
Discussion Question 3: Can you think of potential drawbacks to retailers using labor-waste elimination systems based on scientific management principles, as described in the text? Despite their being about years old, do you believe scientific management characteristics will ever cease to be a part of organizational life?
Why are her ideas appreciated more today? Human Relations Movement 1. The human relations movement was based on the idea that truly effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than from strict, authoritarian control. This school of thought recognized and directly responded to social pressures for enlightened treatment of employees. The Hawthorne studies were a series of experiments on worker productivity at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company, Chicago.
The tests were originally designed to investigate the effects of illumination on output; however, many of the tests pointed to the importance of factors other than illumination in affecting productivity. The Hawthorne studies were important in shaping ideas concerning how managers should treat workers.
Early interpretations agreed that human relations, not money, caused increased output. Workers performed better when managers treated them positively.
New data showed that money mattered, but productivity increased because of increased feelings of importance and group pride employees felt when they were selected for the project. One unintended contribution of the experiments was a rethinking of field research practices. Researchers realized that the researcher could influence the outcome of an experiment by being too involved with research subjects—a phenomenon now known as the Hawthorne effect.
Discussion Question 8: Why can an event such as the Hawthorne studies be a major turning point in the history of management, even if the results of the studies are later shown to be in error? Human Resources Perspective Exhibit 2. The human resources perspective suggests jobs should be designed to meet higher- level needs by allowing workers to use their full potential.
This perspective combines prescriptions for design of job tasks with theories of motivation. Yet, an hour I spent stuck in a broken elevator with a complete stranger influenced my life views greatly. The stranger wore black sunglasses and a grey coat and he behaved a bit strangely.
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Indeed, looking at his self portraits, we discover the handsome man he was, with his face reflecting the purity of his soul and his intelligence. His contemporaries were impressed by his physical appearance, and his mental and moral qualities, which were no less remarkable.
He studied the art principles, made rigorous theoretical observations, meticulously recorded the results of his investigations, and then he gave the resulting written instructions to his contemporaries. In the 16th Century, the city was the chief centre of the German artistic life.
The revival of the classical spirit of Antiquity inspired the new, original conceptions in art. The movement influenced the art more than the literature, with engravings, woodcuts, and paintings reflecting the new thinking. In a typical German fashion, his art sometimes disregards the outward beauty of form, with the main intent of revealing the inner life.
The art is subordinated to the revelation of the real, the inward, which latter was the subject of investigation for German philosophers like Kant and Schopenhauer. He wrote treatises on measurement, fortifications, proportion, and on artistic theory. His most important work is "Human Proportions", containing the results of a life-long, patient study.
His Biography is provided both in a short version, and in detail. Apparently, none of his literary works would reveal any insight into his real heart, everything is written with cold, laconic precision.
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In the recent past there have been calls for Clark to replace NAIA eventually as the primary airport of the Philippines. In , all terminals at NAIA handled a record-breaking annual passenger traffic of 45,,, an increase of 6.
It was the city's first commercial airport, and was used by Philippine Aerial Taxi Company later Philippine Airlines for its first domestic routes. In July , Manila International Air Terminal located in the 42 hectares 4,, sq ft Nielson Airport was inaugurated and had served as the gateway to Manila.
The original structure was built on what is now the site of Terminal 2. In the airport's international runway and associated taxiway were built, and in , construction was started on a control tower and a terminal building for international passengers.
The new terminal was inaugurated on September 22, This second terminal would served as the country's international terminal until when it was converted to a domestic airport upon the completion and opening of a new, higher-capacity terminal, known today as Terminal 1. The old international terminal was later damaged by another fire in May His flight number was ironically the same flight number that was involved in an accident three years ago at the same airport, albeit that the aircraft involved in the assassination was a Boeing Four years after the incident he was memorialized by having the airport named in his honor, by virtue of Republic Act No.
The recommendation was to build two new terminals, and in Terminal 2 was completed. Terminal 2 was nicknamed the Centennial Terminal as its completion coincided with the th anniversary of the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain.
In the government approved the construction of Terminal 3, which was originally scheduled to be completed in After many delays caused by technical and legal issues, the terminal became partially operational in mid and fully operational in August Ramos led the groundbreaking ceremony of Terminal 3.
The structure was mostly completed several years ago and was originally scheduled to open in The ultra-modern US0 million, ,square-metre 2,, sq ft facility was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill SOM to have a capacity of 13 million passengers per year. However, a legal dispute between the government of the Philippines and the project's main contractor, Philippine International Air Terminals Co.
While the original agreement was one in which Pair Cargo and Fraport AG would operate the airport for several years after its construction, followed by a handing over of the terminal to the Philippine Government, the government offered to download out Fraport AG for 0 million, to which Fraport agreed. However, before the terminal could be fully completed, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, called the contract "onerous" and therefore formed a committee to evaluate the agreement to download out Fraport AG.
It is this action that sparked the most controversy. The Philippine Supreme Court eventually found the Piatco contract "null and void" citing a variety of anomalies. In a subsequent decision, the Philippine Supreme Court upheld the Philippine Government's position on the matter and declared the BOT contract "null and void" for, among other things, violations of certain provisions of the BOT law. More specifically, the Court found that the original contract was revised to allow for a Philippine Government guarantee of Piatco's obligations to its creditors, contractors and suppliers.
The BOT law disallows the granting of such sovereign guarantees. Piatco disagrees and continues to maintain that the provisions cited by the Supreme Court do not amount to a prohibited sovereign guarantee by the Philippine Government.
However, the court only allowed the Philippine government to take over the terminal upon payment of an initial amount of approx. The Philippine government paid Piatco this amount during the second week of September The government was then in the process of negotiating a contract with the builder of the terminal, Takenaka Corporation, because another factor that delayed the terminal's opening was the ongoing investigation into the collapse of an square-metre 1, sq ft area of the terminal's ceiling.
Piatco and its German partner, Fraport have instituted arbitration proceedings before different international bodies to recover a fair settlement. However, this decision was annulled in due to a violation of Fraport's right to be heard. Piatco formally withdrew its second application to set aside the earlier ICC ruling that dismissed its claims against the Philippine government in December The ICC ruling in favor of the Philippine government became final and executory in Terminal 3 began partial operations at am on July 22, with 16 inbound and outbound domestic flights from Cebu Pacific.
On August 1, , President Benigno Aquino III announced plans to utilize Terminal 3 to its maximum capacity by the Christmas season, which may mean moving international carriers to Terminal 3, but the goal was never reached. In October , reports of an extortion scam concerning bullets planted by airport security officials in airline passengers' luggages dubbed in the local media as the "laglag-bala scam" spread, creating a scare among travelers.
Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte, then a presumptive presidential candidate in the Philippine presidential election, further alleged that a syndicate is behind the series of incidents. Duterte said the operation had been going on for more than two years. The consortium's airport rehabilitation and expansion proposal will be divided into two phases which are the improvement and expansion of terminals in the current NAIA land area, and the development of an additional runway, taxiways, passenger terminals, and associated support infrastructure.
GMR-Megawide, unlike the aforementioned consortium, is not pushing for the construction of a new runway. On February 28, , Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez from the House of Representatives on Wednesday announced the extension from forty five days to six months of the deadline for airlines to transfer some of their flights to Clark International Airport to decongest the airport.
Terminal 1 or NAIA 1, has an area of 67, square metres , sq ft and having been completed in is the second oldest terminal at NAIA after the Old Domestic Terminal, now called Terminal 4 with a design capacity of 4.
The detailed designs were adopted by the Philippine Government in and was subsequently approved by the Asian Development Bank on September 18, Actual work on the terminal began during the second quarter of The development of the Manila International Airport was finally approved through the promulgation of Executive Order No. The terminal reached capacity in , when it registered a total passenger volume of 4. The makeover and upgrade includes the expansion of the arrival area, addition of parking spaces, and improvement of other terminal facilities.
The Transportation and Communications Department previously announced that as soon as Terminal 3 becomes fully operational, Terminal 1 was eyed by Cebu Pacific with the intention rehabilitating the terminal into an "Airport City" and serve as an exclusive terminal for their aircraft. It began construction in December and was inaugurated on May 1, and began operations in It has been named the Centennial Terminal in commemoration of the centennial year of the declaration of Philippine independence.
Terminal 2 is exclusively used by Philippine Airlines and PAL Express for both its domestic and international flights. It is divided into two wings: the North Wing, for international flights, and the South Wing, which handles domestic operations. There are several cafes and restaurants in the Terminal post-security. There is also a small duty-free section in the north wing. The study was facilitated by means of a grant from the French Government.
The review cost 2. In , the French government granted a 30 million franc soft loan to the Philippine government, which was to be used to cover the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design of the NAIA Terminal 2. ADP completed the design in and in , the Japanese Government granted an Construction of the Centennial Terminal began on December 11, , and was formally turned over to the government of the Philippines on December 28, Since construction, the terminal has been at the center with legal battles, red tape, and arbitration cases in both the United States and Singapore, as well as technical and safety concerns which delayed its opening several times.
Terminal 3 is built on a The terminal building has a total floor area of , square metres 1,, sq ft and has a total length of 1. A four-level shopping mall connects the terminal and parking buildings. The parking building has a capacity of 2, cars and the outdoor parking area has a capacity of 1, cars.
The terminal is capable of servicing 33, passengers daily at peak or 6, passengers per hour. A meter long footbridge that opened in April , known as Runway Manila, connects the terminal with Newport City. The bridge contains moving walkways and can accommodate about 2, persons at any given time. Its apron area has a size of , square metres 1,, sq ft.
The departure area has five entrances all equipped with X-ray machines with the final security check having 18 X-ray machines. The terminal has 34 jet bridges and 20 contact gates with the ability of servicing 28 planes at a time. Its baggage claim has 7 large baggage carousels, each with its own flight display monitor. The terminal has 70 flight information terminals, display monitors, and kilometres mi of fiber optic I.
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The vast majority of international flights still operate from Terminal 1, but All Nippon Airways became the first foreign-based carrier to operate out of Terminal 3 starting February 27, The terminal underwent a rehabilitation under the contractor Takenaka Corp.
Previously, it only operated at half of its capacity awaiting the completion of the remaining system works. The terminal became fully operational on August 1, , leading to the transfer of five international airlines to Terminal 3 to ease congestion at Terminal 1 starting with Delta Air Lines on that day, It is host to all domestic flights within the Philippines that are operated by Cebgo, among others.
There are no jet bridges and passengers walk to and from the aircraft or are occasionally bussed. Twenty-six check-in counters are located in the terminal. The departure hall has the seating capacity for people at a time. Several food stores and a book and magazine stall are also available. Five baggage carousels are located in the terminal whilst domestic airline offices, banks, restaurants and a grocery store are also located right beside the domestic passenger terminal.
Out of the planes that fly on NAIA daily, of them take the secondary runway. The proposed runway has a length of 2, metres 6, ft that could allow the landing of an Airbus A and increase the numbers of aircraft that the airport can handle from 40 planes per hour to about The test flight demonstrated that the A could land on existing runways in Asia and that the primary international airport of the Philippines can support aircraft as large as the A However, according to MIAA General Manager Jose Angel Honrado, NAIA is currently not capable of handling regular commercial flights on the A, as it would "cause a lot of inconvenience and delay for other scheduled flights" due to the airport's runway's and taxiway's centerline not reaching the "wing-tip-to-wing-tip clearance" safety requirement for the aircraft to operate at the airport on a regular basis.
Therefore, no airlines have regular commercial flights that operate using this aircraft, although some airlines who have Airbus A flies to NAIA for maintenance at Lufthansa Technik Philippines. On October 7, , Emirates flew their A to NAIA in a one-off commercial flight from and to Dubai to commemorate the transfer of the airline's operations to Terminal 3. Lufthansa Technik Philippines offers aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul MRO services to customers. The company also opened an Airbus A maintenance hangar to allow the aircraft to be repaired at the airport facility.
Lufthansa Technik Philippines opens A maintenance hangar. The airport also serves as a gateway facility of the logistics company DHL.
On March 12, , the company opened its first quality control center at NAIA Terminal 3 to show support in its local market. Philippine Airlines operates several aviation facilities in the Philippines. These include various training facilities for pilots and cabin crew, catering services, as well as a data center and an A flight simulator. The PAL Aviation School, located within the premises of Clark Civil Aviation Complex, provides flight training for its own operations and as well as for other airlines, the Philippine government and individual students.
PAL Learning Center, located in Manila, serves as the integrated center for Philippine Airlines flight deck crew, cabin crew, catering, technical, ticketing and ground personnel. Located at the PAL Maintenance Base Complex in Pasay City, the PAL flight simulator, designed to simulate an Airbus A, can duplicate all flight conditions complete with sound and visual system capability for day, dusk and night operations.
The Manila International Airport Authority runs a shuttle bus system which connects all four terminals for passengers who have onward connections on flights departing from another terminal. Shuttle buses run every fifteen minutes during daytime hours, but passengers are required to clear immigration and customs to use the system. Philippine Airlines operates an airside shuttle service between Terminals 1, 2 and 3 for passengers connecting to onward PAL Express flights and vice versa.
While a new station of the Mega Manila Subway line will be built directly connecting the airport, as its Southern terminus. Phd in creative writing nyc From the first day of their university life, students know that they will have to write a lot - each professor requires them to create an essay or a research paper.
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An extensive scientific research and proper topic ideas for academic paper are the steps that define the whole process. Brainstorming activities and personal coaching might help. A final structure of research paper is stiff, it serves a particular purpose.
The main goal of a tricky structure and formatting is to discover credible resources without obstacles and help organize the ideas you have regarding the picked issue. Remember the structure of an empiric research paper — it works no matter which themes to write about for a research paper the author prefers: Do you find it tricky?
Experts recommend picking an appropriate language style for your research paper and focusing on every section separately. Write the project step-by-step rather than complete research paper at one time.Your analysis essay topic should be interesting both for you and your professor. If your goals are unclear, the results will probably be unclear. Much of this course is devoted to learning how to steal the tools of great fiction writing, then to using those tools to realize your own vision.
Students will submit the final version of their BA Project to their preceptor, faculty advisor, and the Director of Undergraduate Studies by the beginning of the fifth week of Spring Quarter. If we sincerely love God, this love for others should naturally flow out of us. Get a PayPal account here. I found it easier to simplify the entire dissertation into bullet points first, rather than completing a section and not knowing what I was going to write next.
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